St-Basil-the-GreatThe nature of the divine is very frequently represented by the rough and shadowy outlines of the types.

But because divine things are prefigured by small and human things, it is obvious that we must not therefore conclude the divine nature to be small.

The type is an exhibition of things expected, and gives an imitative anticipation of the future.  So Adam was a type of “Him that was to come.”

Typically, “That rock was Christ;” and the water a type of the living power of the word; as He says, “If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink.”

The manna is a type of the living bread that came down from heaven; and the serpent on the standard, of the passion of salvation accomplished by means of the cross, wherefore they who even looked thereon were preserved.

So in like manner, the history of the exodus of Israel is recorded to shew forth those who are being saved through baptism.

For the firstborn of the Israelites were preserved, like the bodies of the baptized, by the giving of grace to them that were marked with blood.

For the blood of the sheep is a type of the blood of Christ; and the firstborn, a type of the first-formed.

And inasmuch as the first-formed of necessity exists in us, and, in sequence of succession, is transmitted till the end, it follows that “in Adam” we “all die,” and that “death reigned” until the fulfilling of the law and the coming of Christ.

And the firstborn were preserved by God from being touched by the destroyer, to show that we who were made alive in Christ no longer die in Adam.

The sea and the cloud for the time being led on through amazement to faith, but for the time to come they typically prefigured the grace to be.

“Who is wise and he shall understand these things?”—how the sea is typically a baptism bringing about the departure of Pharaoh, in like manner as this washing causes the departure of the tyranny of the devil.

The sea slew the enemy in itself: and in baptism too dies our enmity towards God.

From the sea the people came out unharmed:  we too, as it were, alive from the dead, step up from the water “saved” by the “grace” of Him who called us.

And the cloud is a shadow of the gift of the Spirit, who cools the flame of our passions by the “mortification” of our “members.”

Basil the Great (330-379): On the Holy Spirit 14, 31.