Germanus of ConstantinoplePraying toward the East is handed down by the holy apostles, as is everything else.

This is because the comprehensible sun of righteousness, Christ our God, appeared on earth in those regions of the East where the perceptible sun rises, as the prophet says:

“Orient is his name” (Zech 6:12); and “Bow before the Lord, all the earth, who ascended to the heaven of heavens in the East” (cf Ps 67:34);

and “Let us prostrate ourselves in the place where His feet stood” (cf Ps 67:34); and again, “The feet of the Lord shall stand upon the Mount of Olives in the East” (Zech 14:4).

The prophets also speak thus because of our fervent hope of receiving again the paradise in Eden, as well as the dawn of the brightness of the second coming of Christ our God, from the East.

[…] The priestly stole is the robe of Aaron, which served to cover him down to his feet. It was fiery in appearance, as the prophet says:

“Who makes the winds your messengers and flames of fire your servants” (Ps 103:4); and again…, “Why is your clothing all red, like the garments of one who treads grapes in the vat?” (Is 63:2).

By this the prophet indicates the stole of the flesh of Christ dyed by His undefiled blood on the cross. Or, again, since Christ wore a crimson cloak at His passion, it indicates that the high priests are servants of such a High Priest.

[…] The bread of offering, that is to say, which is purified, signifies the superabundant riches of the goodness of our God, because the Son of God became man and gave Himself as an offering and oblation in ransom and atonement for the life and salvation of the world.

He assumed the entirety of human nature, except for sin. He offered Himself as first-fruits and chosen whole burnt-offering to the God and Father on behalf of the human race, as is written: “I am the bread which came down from heaven,” and “He who eats this bread will live forever” (Jn 6:51).

About this the Prophet Jeremiah says: “Come, let us place a stake in his bread” (11:19 LXX), pointing to the wood of the cross nailed to His body.

[…] The bread and the chalice are really and truly the memorial of the mystical supper at which Christ, having taken the bread and wine, said: “Take, eat, and drink, all of you, this is my body and blood.”

This shows that He made us communicants of His death, His resurrection, and His glory.

Germanus of Constantinople (c.634–c.733): On the Divine Liturgy, 11,14,20,22 (Tr based in part on: J. Meyendorff, St. Germanus of Constantinople on the Divine Liturgy, Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1984: 56-106. ) @ Fr Luke Dysinger, OSB.

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