The Roman Canon describes the chalice which the Lord gives to his disciples as praeclarus calix (the glorious cup), thereby alluding to Psalm 23 , the Psalm which speaks of God as the Good Shepherd, the strong Shepherd.
There we read these words: “You have prepared a banquet for me in the sight of my foes … My cup is overflowing” – calix praeclarus.
The Roman Canon interprets this passage from the Psalm as a prophecy that is fulfilled in the Eucharist.
Yes, the Lord does indeed prepare a banquet for us in the midst of the threats of this world, and he gives us the glorious chalice – the chalice of great joy, of the true feast, for which we all long – the chalice filled with the wine of his love.
The chalice signifies the wedding-feast.
Now the “hour” has come to which the wedding-feast of Cana had mysteriously alluded.
Yes indeed, the Eucharist is more than a meal, it is a wedding-feast.
And this wedding is rooted in God’s gift of himself even to death.
In the words of Jesus at the Last Supper and in the Church’s Canon, the solemn mystery of the wedding is concealed under the expression novum Testamentum (New Testament).
This chalice is the new Testament – “the new Covenant in my blood”, as Saint Paul presents the words of Jesus over the chalice in today’s second reading (1 Cor 11:25).
The Roman Canon adds: “of the new and everlasting covenant”, in order to express the indissolubility of God’s nuptial bond with humanity.
The reason why older translations of the Bible do not say Covenant, but Testament, lies in the fact that this is no mere contract between two parties on the same level, but it brings into play the infinite distance between God and man.
What we call the new and the ancient Covenant is not an agreement between two equal parties, but simply the gift of God who bequeaths to us his love – himself.
Certainly, through this gift of his love, he transcends all distance and makes us truly his “partners” – the nuptial mystery of love is accomplished.
Benedict XVI (b. 1927): Sermon at Mass of the Lord’s Supper, April 9th, 2009 (translation by Zenit).